My books

In this book, I outline and present a number of my works dealing with "automobile paint design". It contains notes and information about colors, color systems, paints, paint applications and airbrushing.

My first Windows book - 3 years after the purchase of my first Compaq PC.

My second Windows book - now about Windows 3.1

Airbrush book No.1

Airbrush book No.2

Airbrush book No.3 - the completely revised edition of Airbrushing book No. 1

This history book was written together with Ingo Röver, who was responsible for the corrections and the technical details.

Co-author of 21st edition of Brockhaus encyclopedia

Co-author of "Auto und Karosserie", 2015

Co-author Encyclopedia of Color, 2022:

Set ISBN 978-3-11-058881-1

Volume 1
Antraquinonoid Pigments - Color Fundamentals


Volume 2
Color Measurement - Metal Effect Pigments


Volume 3
Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments - Zinc Sulfide Pigments


All books are listed in the

German National Library

These experiments with colors were created in 1976. In the original they were about 4 x 4 cm (1.5 x 1.5 inches) in size. I used different paint materials from the automotive, industrial and decorative fields. These experiments were prepared in white plastic cups from the lab, which were illuminated from the side. This prevented the light from reflecting on the surfaces. A paint manufacturer created an annual calendar from the images.

The paintwork is done with the highest perfection and precision. Through repeated spraying with clear lacquer and intermediate sanding, the layers appeared as if embedded in glass.

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Contact                       deutsch english chinese espanol nederlands Русский

Werner Rudolf Cramer
Hafenweg 22
48155 Münster
T +49-172-2366667

info (at) wrcramer [dot] de

Publications 2024

RADTECH May 20-22.2024 Orlando, Florida USA
Cypris Materials, Inc.
LED Curable Dichroic Coatings Based on Structural Color Copolymer

Gerbrand Dros uit De Corksdorp - de eerste schipper in de nieuwe haven van Münster
Historische Vereninging Texel Maart 2024

Publications 2023

Die Farbe im Untergrund
JOT März 2023

Lila macht kleine Füsse
fml März 2023

Lila macht kleine Füsse
fml März 2023 online

Lila macht kleine Füsse

Lila macht kleine Füsse
Oberfläche online

The ultimate book about colors!
Clear and understandable!
Modern insights into color theory!
Online-Shop: De Gruyter

Publications 2022

Co-Author of Encyclopedia of Color, Dyes and Pigments
Set ISBN 978-3-11-058881-1:
Volume 1:
Antraquinonoid Pigments - Color Fundamentals

Volume 2:
Color Measurement - Metal Effect Pigments

Volume 3:
Mixed Metal Oxide Pigments - Zinc Sulfide Pigments


Order by DeGruyter:
Volume 1
Volume 2
Volume 3
Set of Volume 1 - 3

Weißes in bunter Mischung
Farbe und Lack 4/2022

Blue - Hardly Natural, More Artificial!
China Coatings Journal 3/2022

Visual and instrumental assessment of interference pigments
Color Research and Application 02/2022

Das sonderbare Farbverhalten von Mischlacken
JOT 01/2022

What's in a colour?
European Coatings Journal 1/2022

Publications 2021

Additional information about colored pigments
PCI 10/2021

Reaktion der Buntpigmente auf unbunte Pigmente
DfwG-Report 2/2021

Visual and instrumental assessment of interference pigments
Color Research and Application online 06/2021

Color measurement
Physical Sciences Review August 2021

Color fundamentals
Physical Sciences Review April 2021

Optical reactions of coloured pigments
CCJ 5/2021

Publications 2020

Farben richtig mischen und nuancieren
JOT 12/2020

Berechnung der Farbe
DfwG-Report 4/2020

Auch das noch!
DfwG-Report 4/2020

Auch das noch!
DfwG-Report 3/2020

Die Welt der Autofarben
DfwG-Report 2/2020

Pigmente und Farben in der Malerei
DfwG-Report 1/2020

Publications 2019

Sophisticated Colour Matching Made Easy
European Coatings Journal 12/2019

Der Farbe auf Spur
Farbe und Lack 12/2019

Effektpigmente in Autolacken
Magazin für Oberflächentechnik 9/2019

Characterisation of Interference Pigments
China Coatings Journal 9/2019

Useful and useless geometries
PPCJ 08/2019

Farbe als Übersetzung der physikalischen Welt
JOT 08/2019

Experiments with Matt Effects
China Coatings Journal March 2019

Nicht die Menge macht's
Farbe und Lack 02/2019

Die Fibonacci-Versuchung
DfwG-Report 1/2019

Measuring effects
European Coatings Journal 01/2019

Matteffekte messen
Farbe und Lack 01/2019

Publications 2018

PCI 中文版 2018年9月

Über Geometrien
DfwG-Report 2/2018

Methods for describing Color and Effects
Paint & Coatings Industry 07/2018

Über Geometrien
DfwG-Report 2/2018

Colours seen from all sides
CCJ 6/2018

Shades of Differences
European Coatings Journal 04/2018

Eine Sache des Blickwinkels
Farbe und Lack 04/2018

Der Wiederverkaufswert bestimmt
Farbe und Lack 02/2018

Publications 2017

Mehr als Effekthascherei
Farbe und Lack 12/2017

Eines für alle - Mischsysteme im Einsatz
DfwG-Report 2/2017

Kein blasser Schimmer
Kunststoffe 07/2017

Autolack: Wie Deutschland die Farbe verlor 05/2017

Coloured versus Grey Undercoats - Trials with Interference Colours (Part 2)
China Coatings Journal 5/2017

Coloured versus Grey Undercoats - Trials with Interference Colours (Part 1)
China Coatings Journal 3/2017

Undercover influences
European Coatings Journal 05/2017

Buntes in Vergangenheit und Moderne
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 05/2017

Die Mischung macht's
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 05/2017

Lackierfehler - und wie sie sich vermeiden lassen
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 05/2017

Welcher Füller darf's denn sein?
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 05/2017

Livestream 2017/03/08
Farbe und Lack, Vincentz-Verlag

Im Untergrund steckt der Einfluss
Farbe und Lack 03/2017

Hidden Secrets of Effect Pigments
Paint & Coatings Industry 01/2017

Publications 2016

Farben und Mischlacke
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 12/2016

Farbe, nichts als Farbe?
DfwG-Report 3/2016

Paint & Coatings Industry 中文版 2016年11月

The Effective Use of Interference and Polychromatic Colorants
Paint & Coatings Industry 09/2016

Matt soll matt bleiben
autofachmann 08/2016

Great-looking thanks to interference pigments
European Coatings Journal 06/2016

干涉颜料与多彩色颜料的有效利用 06/2016

Matt soll matt bleiben
kfz-betrieb 16/2016

Veränderungen in kleinen Schritten
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 04/2016

Rainbows made to order
European Coatings Journal 04/2016

Eight Golden Rules for a Fantastic Colour Creation
China Coatings Journal 3/2016

Jenseits des Regenbogens
Farbe und Lack 03/2016

Formulating Excellent Automotive Effects
European Coatings Journal 01/2016

Das 1x1 der Farbkreation
Farbe und Lack 01/2016

Publications 2015

Farben und Mischlacke
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 12/2015

Effektheischend und bunt
Farbe und Lack 11/2015

Wenig Neues in Sicht
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 10/2015

Die Mattigkeit und ihre Folgen
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 4/2015

Mal so und mal so
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 2/2015

Aus meiner Sicht
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 1/2015

Weniger Bunt, mehr Weiß auf deutschen Straßen
Farbe und Lack 1/2015

Publications 2014

Wenn Farben fehlen
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 12/2014

Was hinterm Farbwunsch steckt
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 11/2014

Immer noch keine Bewegung
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 08/2014

Reparaturlackierung Teil4
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 08/2014

Wem gehört das Rot nun wirklich?
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 07/2014

Effektpower auf neuer Basis
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 06/2014

Farbenwelt und Mischsysteme
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 05/2014

So sieht's farblich aus auf den Strassen
fml 05/2014

Alles wie bisher oder?
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 03/2014

Reparaturlackierung Teil3
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 02/2014

Publications 2013

Farben und Mischlacke
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 12/2013

Reparaturlackierung Teil1
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 10/2013

Nichts Neues von der Straße
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 9/2013

Mattlackierungen beurteilen
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 5/2013

Dabei zwei neue Farben kreiiert
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 4/2013

Nicht mehr Farbe im Jahr 2012
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 2/2013

Reparaturlackierung Teil4
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 2/2013

Mix and match
European Coatings Journal 1/2013

Strategisches Farbdesign
Farbe und Lack 1/2013

Und somit deutlich schneller
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 1/2013

Publications 2012

Visuelle und instrumentelle Geometrien der Farbabmusterung
DfwG-Report 3/2012

Warum Farben so schön sind!
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 11/2012

Reparaturlackierung Teil3
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 09/2012

Den eigenen Farbton schaffen
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 09/2012

Reparaturhersteller mittendrin
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 09/2012

Den Geheimnissen der Lackkunst auf der Spur
Phänomen Farbe 08/2012

顏色匹配中的 目測及儀器幾何條件— 為何使用者覺得顏色匹配困難?
Visual & Instrumental Geometries in Colour Matching
China Coatings Journal July 2012

Effekte richtig verstehen
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 05/2012

Making Sense of Measurement Geometries for Multi-angle Spectrophotometers
Color Research and Application 04/2012

Color Diversity
Kunststoffe International 04/2012

Über die Vielfalt der Farben
Kunststoffe 04/2012

Es glitzert wie am Sternenhimmel
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 04/2012

Reflections on the right angle
European Coatings Journal 04/2012

干涉顏料的光學性能 ——其描述和表征的方法
Optical Properties of Interference Pigments
China Coatings Journal March 2012

Farbiger oder grauer Füller
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 03/2012

Es graut so grau auf deutschen Straßen
Farbe + Lack 03/2012

Reparaturlackierung Teil1
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 03/2012

Es wird eintöniger auf deutschen Straßen
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 02/2012

Beurteilung und Abmusterung von Interferenzpigmenten
Farbe + Lack 01/2012

Optische Wirkung des Klarlackes
Fahrzeug + Karosserie 01/2012

Publications before 2012

Until 2012, about 800 articles have been published by me worldwide. Unfortunately, only a small part is available digitally.

Flüssig-kristalline Mesophasen
Pharmazie in unserer Zeit 4/1972

Farbmessung an Glimmerpigmenten
Technisches Messen 5/1992

Magical mixtures
PCI 9/1999

Goldene Zeiten
FuL 9/1994

Measuring special effects
PCI 9/2001

Measuring special effects
ECJ 7-8/2001

Man versus machine
PCI 9/2006

Effektvolles Messen
FuL 1/2001

Effekte sichten und beziffern
FuL 3/2002

Messgeometrien ganzheitlich diskutieren
Farbe und Lack

Ohne Glimmer, aber mit Glitzer
FuL 4/2003

Das gewisse Etwas
FuL 10/2003

Der richtige Blickwinkel
FuL 9/2006

Interference pigments
PCI 1/2007

Interference pigments
PCI 1/2007 online

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Automobile Paint Design

I expanded my photo laboratory in the mid 1970s, when I developed successful recipes and processes to produce prints up to 40 x 50 cm in size directly from slides without inter-negatives. My specialties included film developments - color negative film and slides - as well as pseudo-solarizations in color.
I displayed color prints that I made out of pseudo-solarized film in 1976 at my first exhibition at the town hall in the city of Münster, Germany. This was followed by twelve more exhibitions (also in towns such as Orleans, France and Enschede, Netherland) with various motif groups.
My preoccupation with color photography (and with the laws of color) was a good basis for starting up with automobile paint design. Since the refinishing paint can no longer be recognized once damage to an automobile has been repaired (that's the prerequisite for a successful repair), I had the idea of making targeted use of refinishing paint to style vehicles.
I gave this styling and technique the name "Autolackdesign" (automobile painting design) and, at the end of the 1980s, I wrote a book about it under the same title.

Complete styling of my first Golf: I primed the car with a white primer, placed a white pearlescent paint on top of it and then added two layers of clear coat. I taped up the stripes on the transparent varnish, painted the surfaces with a shaded primer and then with the colored pearlescent paint. I then added up to eight coats of clear coat with some intermediate sanding to give the effect that all the color stripes appear to be embedded in glass. This work took almost three months to complete.

This "Sun King" was the first of three models: The first Sun King (to the right in the photo) had color stripes that started on the rear right corner of the roof and ran towards the front left side. The second "Sun King" (shown in the middle of the photo) had the "sun" on the right side of the car, such that the driver's side of this Sun King was white.
The third "Sun King" was the brightest. It had the sun at the bottom of the driver's side and the color stripes proceeded across the entire vehicle (to the left in the photo).

aurum magicum

At the end of the 1980s, I came up with the idea of using new combination pigments (interference pigments featuring mica carriers and titanium dioxide/iron oxide layering) to create a golden paint. I selected one of 12 trial batches and baptized it with the lovely Latin name "aurum magicum". Its color and brilliance put it ahead of all of the other gold paints.
When compared to a vehicle painted with real gold powder, all of the testers were of the opinion that it was my Golf that had the genuine gold. I had not only "invented" gold, but had also succeeded in creating pale gold and rose gold all in one.
Eventually I sold the license to manufacture "aurum magicum" to the Wuppertal coating manufacturer Herberts, which offered the paint color in the refinishing program featured by Standox.

Where the rainbow ends is where the "aurum magicum" begins!

Tailor-Made OEM-colors

People should talk about paints and be able to recognize them! With this in mind, I created three OEM series paints for Volkswagen at the end the 1980s: "Golf Green" was and is the most noticeable series paint color, since its maximum reflection lies at the same wavelength as the maximum reflection of the sensitivity of our human eyes. "Golf Red" is the reddest shade of red in the series. "Golf Blue" completes the threesome.

"Mars Red" is on the left-hand side of the picture and is more yellow than "Golf Red", while "Verkehrs Purple" to the right is more blue than "Golf Red", which is the reddest red!
And where is the yellow in this trio? Stylistically speaking, a strong yellow would not fit well with these three Golf colors. And there's no dark yellow to be seen. Brown and ocher are not dark yellow colors, but they are often suggested as alternatives. As such, we stuck with the creation of these three "Golf colors"!

For my white Golf I had at the end (before it was completely repainted) 22 hoods, which I had designed differently. At the weekend I exchanged the hood on the car for another.

In addition to painting hoods and vehicles, for example, "barrel towers" were created from barrels stacked inside one another and painted differently. Or balls with interference pigments or dayglow paints.

These photos show the first tests with interference pigments (then also called pearlescent pigments), which were carried out in the second half of the 1970s. The green ball with pearlescent red clearly shows the effect: close to the gloss, the red of the interference pigment appears; away from the gloss, the green color of the background can be seen through the transparent pigments.

The design of this hood and the car combines all the properties of the transparent interference pigments: The car and the hood were first sprayed white. Then areas on the white surfaces were masked off and painted in black. Then the stripes were painted in different colors of the interference pigments. If one looks close to the gloss at the stripes over white and black backgrounds, one can clearly see the typical reflection color in each case. If one moves away from the gloss, the reflection color changes to the complementary transmission color. This is absorbed by the black background.

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